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Cananea (from the Apache term for "horse meat") is a city in the northern Mexican state of Sonora, Northwestern Mexico. It is the seat of the Municipality of Cananea, on the U.S−Mexico border.

The first non-indigenous inhabitants of the present day Cananea, arrived in 1760 from other parts of the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Spain (colonial México). Jesuit priests discovered gold and silver, and opened mines using the indigenous peoples for labor.